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Famous pirates for research projects

Discussion in 'The Blind Parrot' started by CapitainDams, Aug 31, 2004.

  1. Korsan

    Korsan Landlubber

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    <!--quoteo--><div class='quotetop'>QUOTE</div><div class='quotemain'><!--quotec-->Here's a incredible list o'famous pirates:

    If you want to do an article about a pirate choose any of the unlinked ones

    Name - Nationality - Active period
    The Barbarossa brothers - Greek - 1505/1546<!--QuoteEnd--></div><!--QuoteEEnd-->
    There seems a mistake in these information. Barbaros was son of a Turk,so he was Turk.If u say he had born in Greek Lands, pls. remember that, Greece was a part of Ottoman (Turkey) in these years
    Barbarossa Hayrettin Pasha is one of the most famous captains of Turkish naval history. He was born in Midilli Island in 1473. His father is one of the Turkish soldiers settled down in Midilli, Yakup Bey from Eceova. Yakup Bey had four sons named Ishak, Oruç, Hızır and İlyas. Ishak and Oruç were the elder ones, and Hızır and İlyas were the little ones.
     
  2. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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  3. Olonnais

    Olonnais Landlubber

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    <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/hi.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":gday" border="0" alt="hi.gif" /> François l'Olonnais was born in 1630 and died in 1671 (1630-1671) ¬¬ ', besides that there are absent pirates as important as John Hawkins.
    It seems to me to be incredible that with so many users those who like the piracy, they do not correct these mistakes ... in end..., you should document more... <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/bookish.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":mm" border="0" alt="bookish.gif" />


    Cheers... <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/me.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":onya" border="0" alt="me.gif" />
     
  4. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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    the dates in the list it's the active periode not the born/died date.

    If you tell me more about John Hawkins I'll be happy to add it.
     
  5. Olonnais

    Olonnais Landlubber

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    Anyway, l'Olonnais active period was exactly since 1656 to 1671.

    About John Hawkins:

    Hawkins, so called Juan Acle for the Spaniards, was the inventor of the negroes' contraband in America to low cost, because they was not costing anything to him, cos he was stealing them from the Portuguese merchants. The queen Elisabeth I named it gentleman, and together with Francis Drake directed the clash against the " Invincible Navy ".

    U must put also:

    .Montbars l'Exterminateur
    .Cornelius Goll
    .Alexandre-Olivier Exquemeling (Oexemeling)
    .Jean Baptiste Ducasse
    .François Le Clerc
    .Johan Adrian Hauspater
    .Edward Mansvelt
    .Diego Grillo (Diego Mulato
    and why not: Hendrijks Boudewinjn (Balduino Enrico)

    ok, this pirates, with François l'Olonnais, Henry Morgan, Francis Drake, John Hawkins*, Laurent de Graff, Bartholomew Purtugues, Pieter Pieterszoon Heyn, Nicholas Van Horn and Miguel Le Vasque were the most important pirates ever been.
     
  6. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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    I added numbers of your list except for Hauspater can't find anything on him, if you have his active date, I'll put him.

    I also put new link for the articles.
     
  7. shokre

    shokre Landlubber

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    <b>Bartholomew Sharp</b> ( 1650 - around 1690 )

    Born in 1650, but active since around 1680, even late 1670s. Famous for his raid on South Seas ( Pacific coast of South America ) which was well written and described in Exmelequin` s " Buccaneers of America ". Beside plundering Spanish towns of Peru and Chile acompanied with Coxon and Hawkins, he also came in possesion of Spanish Deroterro or chartered maps of those parts of continent. Deciding, after a year or so of sailing those waters, to return to Caribbean, he passed the Magellan Straits and came into Atlantic Ocean passing by Brazil on his way to Barbados. Coming to Bridgetown he noticed a English frigate anchored in Carlisle Bay and decided to sail rather to Nevis, hoping that no warship will be there that might attack him since his expedition was direct breach of Peace of 1670 between England and Spain and everybody consider him a pirate not a privateer.
    He came to Nevis and after bribing the governor with large amount of gems and pieces of eight, he disposed his ill gotten goods on the local market. Merchants of Nevis, buying-off his goods, had to store a lot of indigo to be sold next years, because such was the quantity of these that it would cause immediatly big price drops on the international market.

    Yet being wanted he had to bargain with the Crown, giving to the king Charles II maps and charts of the Spanish Coast in the Pacific in the exchange for his freedom. Story goes that Charles was very satisfied with this deal, putting off protests of spanish ambassador in London.

    Later, Sharp was seen on Bermudas and Bahamas, even installing himself as the governor on St. Barthelemy, though there are some evidence that he permanently settled on Danish St. Thomas in 1690 and that was the last hearing of him.
     
  8. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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  9. shokre

    shokre Landlubber

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    <b>William Jackson</b>, active 1637 - 1645

    Starting his career on Providence Island ( spanish name is Santa Catalina ) near the Columbian coast, situated perfectly on spanish trade routes. Providence island was then colonised by English Providence Island Company and was under constant threat from Spanish who often tried to capture the island. So PIC gave permission for privateering against Spanish, altough England wasn`t at war with Spain and king Charles I was even friendly to the Spanish ( one of the causes of Civil War ).

    Anyhow, Jackson gathered 650 men on Barbados and 250 more on St. Christopher and on 3 ships went attacking Spaniards. In 1639 he captured spanish slave ship and ransomed it for 8 000 lbs of indigo and two gold chains, and then went plundering venezuelan coast, attacking La Guayra ( entrance port of Caracas ) and Maracaibo.

    In 1642 he attacked Jamaica ( which at the time had about 1 200 spanish settlers ), landing with 500 men on the site where Port Royal will be in 1655, and after capturing Santiago de la Vega, spanish capital, he threatened to burn whole town if the Spanish don`t give him a ransom. Spaniards payed him 7 000 pieces of eight, 200 beeves and 10 000 lbs of cassava bread to live them alone. Story goes that around 20 Englishman, charmed by the beauty of the island, switched sides and stayed living with the Spanish.

    Afterwards, Jackson with his booty sailed to England to equip for another expedition, but as Civil war broke out, nothing was heard of him again. There was a mention of another William Jackson on Tortuga in 1660s, but probably not a same man.



    I`ve got a wind in my back <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/keith.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":keith" border="0" alt="keith.gif" />
     
  10. Meigger

    Meigger 1000th Member Man

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    Nice write-ups shokre. <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/me.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":onya" border="0" alt="me.gif" />
     
  11. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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  12. shokre

    shokre Landlubber

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    Many thanks, mates!

    I`m gonna see if there is more stories in my pirate chest...

    till than, <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/par-ty.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":cheers" border="0" alt="par-ty.gif" />
     
  13. MrBeaver

    MrBeaver Landlubber

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    If were talking obaut fameous pirates, I wold like to point out that the second pirate in the fameous pirate gallery is not Bartolomeo Roberts, its Bartolomeo Portugues!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Stop <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/buds.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":drunk" border="0" alt="buds.gif" /> and fix that !!!!
     
  14. Barbarossa

    Barbarossa Powder Monkey

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    Murat Reis the Elder

    Murat Reis the Elder (Turkish: Koca Murat Reis) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.

    He was born in the island of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century. The exact date of his birth is not known, but it was probably around 1506, since he was known to be 103 years old when he died in 1609.

    Early career
    His career began when he joined Turgut Reis at a very young age. He also fought alongside Piri Reis in several expeditions. In 1534 Murat Reis accompanied Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha to Istanbul where they were received by Suleiman I and appointed to take command of the Ottoman fleet. While in Istanbul, Murat Reis participated in the construction of new warships at the naval arsenal on the Golden Horn.

    Battle of Preveza
    Murat Reis took part in all of the early naval campaigns of Turgut Reis. On September 25 and 26, 1538, he was assigned with the task of preventing the ships of the Holy League under the command of Andrea Doria from landing at Preveza, and he successfully repulsed them from the shoreline. On September 28, he took part in the main combat and played an important role in the Turkish victory at the Battle of Preveza, where he fought along with Turgut Reis in the center-rear wing of the Turkish fleet which had a Y shaped battle configuration. He continued to accompany Turgut Reis until being assigned as the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Ocean fleet.

    Commander of the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet
    In 1552 Suleiman I assigned Murat Reis as the Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet (hence his commonly-known title Hint Kaptanı, i.e. Captain of the Indian Ocean.) He was the third commander to take this post after Hadım Süleyman Pasha and Piri Reis. The fleet was based in Suez (Egypt) on the Red Sea, with other homeports in Aden (Yemen) and Basra (Iraq) on the Persian Gulf. The homeport in Basra, which Murat Reis used while fighting the Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean, consisted of 26 galleys and several smaller vessels. Murat Reis repaired these ships and, leaving 8 of them in Basra, set sail with 18 galleys to the Indian Ocean. There he encountered a Portuguese fleet of 25 galleys, which had set sail from their base in Goa. Murat Reis successfully engaged the numerically superior Portuguese force and after bitter fighting until nightfall, which ended in a stalemate with heavy losses on both sides, the Portuguese fleet retreated back to Goa and Murat Reis sailed back to Basra. The result, however, didn't please Suleiman I, who was expecting a decisive victory, and Murat Reis was removed from his post; which would be taken by another famous admiral, Seydi Ali Reis. Murat Reis rejoined Turgut Reis and continued to operate with him until the death of the famous seaman at the Siege of Malta in 1565.

    Siege and conquest of Cyprus
    In 1570 Murat Reis, in command of a fleet of 25 galleys, was assigned with the task of clearing the area between Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus for the build-up of the naval siege and eventual conquest of Cyprus. He was also assigned with the task of blocking the Venetian ships based in Crete from sailing to Cyprus and assisting the Venetian forces in that island. He continued to undertake this task until the eventual surrender of Famagusta, the final Venetian stronghold in Cyprus.

    Canary Islands
    In 1585 Murat Reis crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and took several of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, capturing the Spanish governor of the island of Lanzarote, who was later ransomed and released.

    Engaging the Venetians, the French and the Maltese Knights in the Levant
    Murat Reis was later assigned with the task of controlling the lucrative trade routes between Egypt and Anatolia which were often raided by the Venetians, the French and the Maltese Knights. In 1609, he heard of the presence of a joint French-Maltese fleet of ten galleys, including the famous Galeona Rossa, a large galleon armed with 90 cannons which was known among the Turks as the Red Inferno, under the command of a knight named Fresine, off the island of Cyprus, and sailed there to engage them. After successfully striking the enemy ships with cannons from both long distance and close range, he severely damaged the Red Inferno and captured the ship. Six out of the ten French-Maltese galleys were captured, along with the 500 soldiers aboard, and the total of 160 cannons and 2000 muskets which they carried. However, the old Murat Reis -defined as already 103 years old in most historic resources- was mortally injured during the combat. Halil Pasha rushed Murat Reis to Cyprus with his ship for medication, but it was too late.

    Legacy
    Murat Reis was buried in Rhodes, his birthplace, in accordance with his will. His tomb in Rhodes, which still stands, became a popular shrine for Turkish sailors in the following centuries, who visited his grave for good luck before setting sail to distant places.

    Several submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Murat Reis (see Oruç Reis class submarine).


    "Fleet configurations at the naval Battle of Preveza in 1538"
    [​IMG]


    "Murat Reis Mosque, city of Rhodes, Greece. His place of birth"
    [​IMG]

    Source: Wikipedia.org
     
    Last edited: Mar 8, 2014
  15. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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  16. Barbarossa

    Barbarossa Powder Monkey

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    Thanks Matey
     
  17. Barbarossa

    Barbarossa Powder Monkey

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    Salih Reis

    Salih Reis (1488 ca. - 1568) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.

    In 1529, together with Aydın Reis, he took part in the Turkish-Spanish War near the Isle of Formentera, during which the Ottoman forces destroyed the Spanish fleet, whose commander, Rodrigo Portundo, died in combat.

    In 1538 he commanded the right wing of the Turkish fleet at the naval Battle of Preveza, where the Ottoman forces under Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria.

    In 1551, due to his success in the conquest of Tripoli (Libya) together with Turgut Reis and Sinan Pasha, he was promoted to the rank of Pasha and became the Beylerbeyi (Ottoman equivalent of Grand Duke) of Algiers and the Bahriye Beylerbeyi (Admiral) of the Ottoman West Mediterranean Fleet.

    In 1553 he conquered Morocco and extended Ottoman territory into the Atlantic Ocean, far beyond the Strait of Gibraltar.

    He is alternatively referred to as Salah Rais, Sala Reis, Salih Rais, Salek Rais and Cale Arraez in several European resources, particularly in Spain, France and Italy.

    Background and early career
    Salih Reis was born in a village between Çanakkale and Edremit, near Kaz Dağı (Mount Ida) to the south of ancient Troy, on the Aegean coast of Turkey, in around 1488.

    At a very young age he joined the fleet of Oruç Reis (Aruj Barbarossa), the most famous of the Turkish corsairs and privateers from Anatolia who seeked fortune in the West Mediterranean by operating from their bases on the Barbary Coast. He gained experience in seamanship as a crew member of the Barbarossa brothers, Oruç Reis and Hızır Reis, and soon became one of their chief lieutenants.

    Salih Reis was around 30 years old when Oruç Reis died in 1518 during a battle against the Spaniards in Algeria. From 1518 onwards, he joined the fleet of Hızır Reis, who inherited the title of Barbarossa from his older brother, Baba Oruç (Father Aruj).

    In 1520 he went to Djerba together with Hızır Reis and Turgut Reis, and later that year assaulted Bône, which was under Spanish control.

    Career in the Ottoman Navy
    In 1529, commanding a force of 14 galliots, Salih Reis assaulted the Gulf of Valencia before joining the fleet of Aydın Reis which took part in the Turkish-Spanish War near the Isle of Formentera, where the Ottoman forces destroyed the Spanish fleet, whose commander, Rodrigo Portundo, died in combat. During the war, Salih Reis captured the galley of Captain Tortosa and took the son of Admiral Portundo, the Spanish commander, as a prisoner of war.

    When the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent summoned Barbarossa to Istanbul, who set sail in August 1532, Salih Reis took part in Barbarossa's fleet. Having raided Sardinia, Bonifacio in Corsica, the Islands of Montecristo, Elba and Lampedusa, they captured 18 galleys near Messina and learned from the captured prisoners that Andrea Doria, the Genoese admiral in service of Charles V, was on his way to Preveza. Barbarossa proceeded to raid the nearby coasts of Calabria and then sailed towards Preveza. Doria's forces fled after a short battle, but only after Barbarossa, accompanied by Salih Reis and Murat Reis, had captured seven of their galleys. Barbarossa arrived at Preveza with a total of 44 galleys, but sent 25 of them back to Algiers and headed to Istanbul with 19 ships, one of which was commanded by Salih Reis, who, along with Murat Reis, was one of the 19 men received by Suleiman the Magnificent at Topkapı Palace. Suleiman appointed Barbarossa Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of North Africa. Barbarossa was also given the government of the Sanjak (Province) of Rhodes and those of Euboea and Chios in the Aegean Sea. Salih Reis, on the other hand, was promoted to the rank of Navy Colonel. In 1533 Barbarossa and Salih Reis operated together against the Spanish-controlled ports in the Mediterranean Sea.

    In July 1535 Salih Reis was appointed by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha for the task of defending Tunis. Accompanied by Cafer Reis and very few Turkish soldiers, Salih Reis encountered the forces of Girolamo Tuttavilla, Count of Sarno, whose fortress was near the city walls of La Goulette. Salih Reis pretended to retreat, and eventually routed and trapped the forces of Tuttavilla, who followed him. Tuttavilla was killed in combat, and his fortress was captured by the Turks. Still in July 1535, Salih Reis assisted Hasan Reis (later Hasan Pasha), the son of Barbarossa, in governing Algiers. In 1536 Barbarossa and Salih Reis were called back to Istanbul to take command of the Ottoman naval attack on the Habsburg Kingdom of Naples. In July 1537 the Turks landed at Otranto and captured the city, as well as the Fortress of Castro and the city of Ugento in Puglia.

    In August 1537, Lütfi Pasha and Barbarossa led a huge Ottoman force, in which Salih Reis also took part, that captured the Aegean and Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos and Naxos. In the same year Barbarossa captured Corfu from Venice and once again raided Calabria. These losses caused Venice to ask Pope Paul III to organize a "Holy League" against the Ottomans.

    Battle of Preveza
    In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League (comprising the Papacy, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, which was to be commanded by Andrea Doria, the chief admiral of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

    Salih Reis, now a Bahriye Sancakbeyi (Rear Admiral, Upper Half) commanded the 24 galleys which formed the right wing of the Ottoman fleet during the Battle of Preveza in September 1538, in which the numerically inferior Turkish forces of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha won an overwhelming victory over the Holy League under the command of Andrea Doria. In one of the most famous incidents of the battle, Salih Reis and his men boarded and assaulted the Galeone di Venezia (Galleon of Venice), the huge Venetian flagship under the command of Alessandro Condalmiero (Bondumier), together with two other Venetian galleys which were drifted away from the rest of the Venetian fleet due to the heavy loss of oarsmen which resulted from the bitter fighting.

    Recapture of Castelnuovo and the conquest of Venetian islands in the Aegean
    In June 1539 Salih Reis set sail from Istanbul with 20 galleys, and near Cape Maleo joined the fleet of Barbarossa which was appointed with the mission of recapturing Castelnuovo (Herceg Novi) from the Venetians. On the way to Castelnuovo their combined fleet captured the islands of Skiathos, Skyros, Andros and Serifos from the Venetians. In August 1539 Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Turgut Reis and Salih Reis laid siege to Castelnuovo and took the city back. They also captured the nearby Castle of Risan and later assaulted the Venetian fortress of Cattaro and the Spanish fortress of Santa Veneranda near Pesaro. The Turkish fleet later took the remaining Christian outposts in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Venice finally signed a peace treaty with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in October 1540, agreeing to recognize the Turkish territorial gains and to pay 300,000 gold ducats.

    Operations on the French coast and Catalonia
    According to some Turkish resources, in 1540, Salih Reis was together with Turgut Reis in Girolata, Corsica, where the two were captured by the combined forces of Giannettino Doria (Andrea Doria's nephew), Giorgio Doria and Gentile Virginio Orsini while repairing their ships at the harbour. These sources also mention that Salih Reis and Turgut Reis were both forced to become oar slaves in Genoese ships until they were liberated by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha in 1544, who threatened to attack the port of Genoa with his massive fleet of 210 ships.

    French, Italian and Spanish sources, however, acknowledge the captivity (1540) and liberation (1544) of Turgut Reis, but make no mention of the captivity of Salih Reis. It is probable that the close friendship between Salih Reis and Turgut Reis and their numerous joint operations may have possibly caused a confusion.

    In fact, according to French, Italian and Spanish sources, Salih Reis took part in the Franco-Ottoman conquest of Nice (Nizza) on 5 August 1543, which was commanded by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha. According to the same sources, following the conquest of Nice, Salih Reis commanded the Ottoman force of 20 galleys and 3 fustas which assaulted the Costa Brava in Catalonia, Spain, in that same year. In early October 1543, Salih Reis landed his troops at Rosas and sacked the city. The following day, Salih Reis appeared at the Medas Islands (Illes Medes) about 1 km off the coast of L'Estartit, before proceeding to Palafrugell and Palamós, the latter being severely sacked following a fierce battle for its capture. From there Salih Reis proceeded to the nearby San Juan de Palamós, which was likewise sacked, and captured the Spanish galley Bribona off the coast of Calelh, a fishing village in the area. He later landed his troops at Empúries (Ampurias) and Cadaqués, capturing and sacking both cities, before sailing to Algiers. He was spotted sailing together with Barbarossa in the spring of 1544.

    Operations in Sicily, Malta and the West Mediterranean
    In mid June 1548 Salih Reis appeared at Capo Passero in Sicily with a force of 18 ships, before appearing at Gozo in Malta with 12 ships - having sent 6 of his ships to Algiers where they would join Turgut Reis, upon the order that he received from Hüseyin Çelebi.

    In the Autumn of 1550 Andrea Doria contacted Salih Reis and attempted to convince him for serving Spain instead of the Ottoman Empire, but failed.

    Conquest of Tripoli (Libya) and subsequent promotion to the rank of Bahriye Beylerbeyi of Algiers
    In June-August 1551, Salih Reis joined the fleet of Sinan Pasha and Turgut Reis, and played an important role in the conquest of Tripoli (Libya), which had been a possession of the Knights of St. John since 1530, when it was given to them by Charles V of Spain. He bombarded the fortress of the Knights from a distance of approximately 150 steps, eventually forcing Gaspare de Villers, their commander, to surrender. Salih Reis returned to Istanbul, where, due to his success in the conquest of Tripoli, he was promoted to the rank of Bahriye Beylerbeyi (Admiral) of the Ottoman West Mediterranean Fleet and was appointed as the Beylerbeyi (the Ottoman equivalent of Grand Duke) of Algiers in 1551.

    In April 1552 he reached Algiers, and later set sail towards Sicily, where he captured a Maltese ship. In the summer of 1552, he joined the forces of Turgut Reis who landed at the Gulf of Naples, and together with him later assaulted the coasts of Lazio and Tuscany. From there Salih Reis sailed to Marseille, before capturing and sacking the Island of Majorca (Mallorca).

    Marching overland to the Sahara Desert (1552)
    From Majorca he sailed back to Algiers, where he prepared his troops to march overland to the Sahara Desert and expand the Ottoman Vilayet (Province) of Algeria inwards. The troops advanced south and captured the city of Touggourt, built around an oasis in southern Algeria. From there the Turks marched towards Ouargla, finding a ghost city whose inhabitants fled upon hearing their arrival.

    Conquest of Morocco and the extension of Ottoman territory into the Atlantic Ocean (1553)
    In 1553 Salih Reis heard the news that the ruler of Morocco made initiatives to arrange an alliance with Spain against the Turks, and leading his troops westwards, he pre-emptively struck and captured Morocco, including its Atlantic coastline beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. This conquest marked the extension of the Ottoman Empire into the Atlantic Ocean.

    Return to Algeria
    In 1555 the French Navy, then allied with the Ottoman Empire of Suleiman the Magnificent, sent a detachment to Algiers for asking the assistance of Salih Reis against the Spaniards. Salih Reis accepted the request and conceded 22 of his galleys, carrying Turkish soldiers and cannons, to the service of the French fleet. Later, with his remaining force of 40,000 men, he laid siege to Bougie. After 14 days of continuous artillery bombardment, he destroyed the two main defenses of the city walls: the Fortress of Vergelette which controlled the entrance of the port, and the Spanish castle which stood right in front of the city walls. The Spanish Governor of Bougie, Alfonso di Peralta, decided to make peace with Salih Reis instead of continuing to defend the city until the bitter end. According to the pact, the Turks allowed all the surviving Spanish inhabitants of Bougie to safely return back to Spain with their belongings, and the Spanish forces to take away their cannons and weapons. However, even though the Governor, Alfonso di Peralta, could sail safely to Valencia, together with 20 of his high ranking officials, on a French ship, some of the Spanish civilians (around 400 men, 120 women and 100 children) were captured and enslaved by the corsairs operating in the area. Alfonso di Peralta was arrested as soon as he entered the port of Valencia and Charles V ordered his execution for treason, which took place in a public square of Valladolid.

    Later that year, Salih Reis conquered Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera from the Spaniards, before sailing to Istanbul where he was received by the Sultan.

    Sieges of Oran, 1556 and 1563
    In 1556 he left Istanbul and set sail towards the Spanish stronghold of Oran in Algeria, which he assaulted with a force of 30 galleys. He destroyed the Spanish forts defending the entrance of the port, but could not capture the city itself due to the fierce resistance by the local population as well as the Spanish army garrison. He then retreated his fleet to Algiers.

    In April 1563, commanding a force of 10,000 soldiers, he once again laid siege to Oran and Mers El Kébir, this time also with the assistance of Turgut Reis who supported him with a force of 20 ships and 20 pieces of siege artillery. Oran once again defended itself to the bitter end, until it was saved by a large Spanish force which arrived in June, but the Turks bombarded and destroyed the Fortress of Mers El Kébir.

    Siege of Malta, 1565
    In August 1565 Salih Reis took part in the Turkish Siege of Malta and commanded a force of 15,000 soldiers which attacked Fort Saint Michael. Towards the end of August he managed to set up a powerful mine which breached the walls of Castiglia, and attacked the bastion with 4,000 men. In the meantime, Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha commanded the main attack against Fort Saint Michael, until he was almost killed by a cannon fire which severely wounded him. Salih Reis then took his place and placed his troops around the ruins of the Bastion of Castiglia. The Turks managed to capture Fort Saint Elmo on the main island, but at the cost of too many casualties, including the famous Turgut Reis who was 80 years old when he died in Malta, shortly before the capture of Fort Saint Elmo. The siege was eventually lifted when a large Christian fleet that was assembled to support the Maltese Knights reached the island.

    Death in Algiers, 1568
    The Siege of Malta was also the final mission of Salih Reis, who was around 77 years old at that time. He died in Algiers 3 years later, in 1568, close to the age of 80, just like his life-long friend Turgut Reis.

    Interestingly, Turgutlu and Salihli are two neighbouring town centers within the Province of Manisa in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

    Legacy
    Salih Reis was from the generation of great Turkish seamen in the 16th century such as Kemal Reis, Oruç Reis, Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Turgut Reis, Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis, Piri Reis, Piyale Pasha, Murat Reis and Seydi Ali Reis.

    He played an important role in the Battle of Preveza (1538) which secured the Turkish domination of the Mediterranean during his lifetime, until the Battle of Lepanto (1571) which took place 3 years after his death.

    He vastly enlarged the Ottoman territories in northwestern Africa and extended them to the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Several warships of the Turkish Navy have been named after Salih Reis.

    Source
    E. Hamilton Currey, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean,, London, 1910
    Bono, Salvatore: Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993.
    wikipedia.org
     
    Last edited: Mar 8, 2014
  18. Barbarossa

    Barbarossa Powder Monkey

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    Kemal Reis

    Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. He was also the paternal uncle of the famous Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis who accompanied him in most of his important naval expeditions.

    Background and early career
    Kemal Reis was born in Gallipoli on the Aegean coast of Turkey around 1451. His full name was Ahmed Kemaleddin and his father was a Turk named Ali from the city of Karaman in central Anatolia. He became known in Europe, particularly in Italy and Spain, with names like Camali and Camalicchio.

    Kemal Reis started his career as the commander of the naval fleet belonging to the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor) of Euboea (Turkish: Eğriboz) which was under Ottoman control. In 1487 the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II appointed Kemal Reis with the task of defending the lands of Emir Abu Abdullah, the ruler of Granada, which was then one of the final Muslim strongholds in Spain. Kemal Reis sailed to Spain and landed an expeditionary force of Turkish troops at Malaga, capturing the city and the surrounding villages and taking many prisoners. From there he sailed to the Balearic Islands and Corsica, where he raided the coastal settlements, before landing his troops near Pisa in Italy. From Pisa he once again went to Andalucia and in several occasions between 1490 and 1492 transported the Muslims and Jews who wished to escape Spain to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire which welcomed them. The Muslims and Jews of Spain contributed much to the rising power of the Ottoman Empire by introducing new ideas, methods and craftsmanship. Kemal Reis continued to land his troops in Andalucia and tried to stop the Spanish advance by bombarding the ports of Elche, Almeria and Malaga.

    Admiral of the Ottoman Navy
    In 1495 Kemal Reis was made an admiral of the Ottoman Navy by Sultan Bayezid II who ordered the construction of his large flagship, Göke, which could carry 700 soldiers and was armed with the strongest cannons of that period. Two large galleys of this type were built, one for Kemal Reis and the other for Burak Reis. In October 1496, with a force of 5 galleys, 5 fustas, a barque and a smaller ship, Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul and raided the Gulf of Taranto. In January 1497 he landed at Modon and later captured several Venetian ships at the Ionian Sea and transported them, along with their cargo, to Euboea. In March 1497 Sultan Bayezid II appointed him with the task of protecting the ships which carried valuable goods belonging to the religious foundations of Mecca and Medina from the frequent raids of the Knights of St. John who were based in the island of Rhodes at that time (in 1522 the Ottomans captured Rhodes and allowed the Knights of St. John to peacefully leave the island, who first relocated their base to Sicily and later to Malta in 1530.) Kemal Reis set sail towards Rhodes with a force of 2 barques and 3 fustas, and captured a barque of the knights near Montestrato. He later landed at Stalimene (Lemnos) and from there sailed towards Tenedos (Bozcaada) and returned back to Istanbul. In June 1497 he was given two more large galleys and in July 1497 he made the island of Chios his base for operations in the Aegean Sea against the Venetians and the Knights of St. John. In April 1498, commanding a fleet of 6 galleys, 12 fustas with large cannons, 4 barques and 4 smaller types of ships, he set sail from the Dardanelles and headed south towards the Aegean islands that were controlled by the Republic of Venice. In June 1498 he appeared in the island of Paros and later sailed towards Crete where he landed his troops at Sitia and captured the town along with the nearby villages before sending his scout forces to examine the characteristics of the nearby Venetian castle. In July 1498 he sailed to Rosetta (Rashid) in Egypt with a force of 5 galleys, 6 fustas and 2 barques for transporting 300 Muslim pilgrims heading for Mecca, who also had with them 400,000 gold ducats which were sent to the Mamluk sultan by Bayezid II. Near the port of Abu Kabir he captured 2 Portuguese ships (one galleon and one barque) after fierce fighting which lasted 2 days. From there Kemal Reis sailed towards Santorini and captured a Venetian barque, before capturing another Portuguese ship in the Aegean Sea.

    Ottoman-Venetian Wars
    In January 1499 Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a force of 10 galleys and 4 other types of ships, and in July 1499 met with the huge Ottoman fleet which was sent to him by Davud Pasha and took over its command in order to wage a large scale war against the Republic of Venice. The Ottoman fleet consisted of 67 galleys, 20 galliots and circa 200 smaller vessels. In August 1499 Kemal Reis defeated the Venetian fleet under the command of Antonio Grimani at the Battle of Zonchio which is also known as the Battle of Sapienza of 1499 or the First Battle of Lepanto and was a part of the Ottoman-Venetian Wars of 1499-1503. It was the first naval battle in history with cannons used on ships, and took place on four separate days: on August 12, 20, 22 and 25, 1499. After reaching the Ionian Sea with the large Ottoman fleet, Kemal Reis encountered the Venetian fleet of 47 galleys, 17 galliots and circa 100 smaller vessels under the command of Antonio Grimani near Cape Zonchio and won an important victory. During the battle Kemal Reis sank the galley of Andrea Loredan, a member of the influential Loredan family of Venice. Antonio Grimani was arrested on September 29 but was eventually released. Grimani later became the Doge of Venice in 1521. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II gifted 10 of the captured Venetian galleys to Kemal Reis, who stationed his fleet at the island of Cefalonia between October and December, 1499.

    In December 1499 the Venetians attacked Lepanto with the hope of regaining their lost territories in the Ionian Sea. Kemal Reis set sail from Cefalonia and retook Lepanto from the Venetians. He stayed in Lepanto between April and May 1500, where his ships were repaired by an army of 15,000 Ottoman craftsmen brought from the area. From there Kemal Reis set sail and bombarded the Venetian ports on the island of Corfu, and in August 1500 he once again defeated the Venetian fleet at the Battle of Modon which is also known as the Second Battle of Lepanto. Kemal Reis bombarded the fortress of Modon from the sea and captured the town. He later engaged with the Venetian fleet off the coast of Coron and captured the town along with a Venetian brigantine. From there Kemal Reis sailed towards the Island of Sapientza (Sapienza) and sank the Venetian galley "Lezza". In September 1500 Kemal Reis assaulted Voiussa and in October he appeared at Cape Santa Maria on the Island of Lefkada before ending the campaign and returning back to Istanbul in November. With the Battle of Modon, the Turkish fleet and army quickly overwhelmed most of the Venetian possessions in Greece. Modon and Coron, the "two eyes of the Republic", were lost. Turkish cavalry raids reached Venetian territory in northern Italy, and, in 1503, Venice again had to seek peace, recognizing the Turkish gains.

    In January 1501 Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a fleet of 36 galleys and fustas. In February 1501 he landed at the Island of Euboea and at Nafplion before heading towards Corfu in March and from there to the Tyrrhenian Sea where he captured the Island of Pianosa along with many prisoners. In April 1501 with a fleet of 60 ships he landed at Nafplion and Monemvasia, causing the Venetian regional commander based at Corfu to call back the Venetian ships heading towards Lebanon and the Levant in order to strengthen the defenses of the Repubblica Serenissima's remaining strongholds on Morea. In May 1501, with a force of 8 galliots and 13 fustas, he escorted the cargo ships carrying construction material for strengthening the Ottoman fortresses on the islands of Chios and Tinos, where he captured the galley of Girolamo Pisani, the local Venetian commander, including the official standard of San Marco (St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice) along with another Venetian galley named "Basadonna". From there he sailed to the port of Zonchio, near Navarino, with a force of 5 galliots and 14 fustas. The Turks landed there and captured the Venetian castle and the nearby settlements after a siege which lasted less than 10 hours. Kemal Reis also captured 3 Venetian galleys, a Venetian caravelle and several other local ships which were docked at the port of Zonchio. He took these ships first to Modon and later to the Island of Aegina, before sailing towards Euboea. He later captured Navarino from the Venetians, adding another important port to the Ottoman Empire. In June 1501 Kemal Reis sailed to the Adriatic Sea and strengthened the Turkish defenses at Voiussa and Vlore.

    Operations in the West Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean
    In July 1501 Kemal Reis, accompanied by his nephew Piri Reis, set sail from the port of Modon with a force of 3 galleys and 16 fustas and went to the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he took advantage of the war between Jacopo d'Appiano, ruler of Piombino, and the Papal forces under the command of Cesare Borgia. The Turks landed at the Island of Pianosa and quickly captured it, taking many prisoners. From there Kemal Reis sailed to the Channel of Piombino and the Turks raided the coastal settlements in that area. In August 1501 Kemal Reis and his troops landed at Sardinia and captured several coastal settlements while taking around 1,050 prisoners during fights against the local forces. He engaged several Genoese warships off the coast of Sardinia, which later escaped northwards after being damaged by cannon fire. Still in August 1501 Kemal Reis sailed to the Balearic Islands and the Turks landed at Mallorca, where bitter fighting against the local Spanish forces took place. From there Kemal Reis sailed to Spain and captured 7 Spanish ships off the coast of Valencia. Aboard these ships he found a strange feather headdress and an unfamiliar black stone. He was told by one of his prisoners that both came from newly discovered lands to the west, beyond the Atlantic Ocean. The prisoner claimed to have visited these lands three times, under the command of a man named Colombo, and that he had in his possession a chart, drawn by this Colombo himself, which showed the newly discovered lands beyond the Sea of Darkness. This map was to become one of the main source charts of the famous Piri Reis map of 1513 which was drawn by the Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis who was the nephew of Kemal Reis.

    After leaving Valencia, still in August 1501, Kemal Reis headed south and bombarded the coastal defenses of Andalucia before landing his troops, where the Turks raided several ports and towns. Kemal Reis later sailed westwards and passed the Strait of Gibraltar and entered the Atlantic Ocean, where he and his men raided the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula. From there Kemal Reis sailed southwest and landed on several of the Canary Islands, where the Turks faced moderate opposition from the Spanish forces. Piri Reis used the occasion, as in other voyages with his uncle, to draw his famous portolan charts which were later to become a part of the renowned Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). Kemal Reis later turned eastwards, where he followed the Atlantic coastline of Morocco and re-entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar, landing on several ports of Morocco and Algeria on the way. From there Kemal Reis headed further east and captured several Genoese ships off the coast of Tripoli in Libya. He also intercepted several Venetian galleys in the area before sailing back to Istanbul.

    Return to the East Mediterranean
    In May 1502 Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with a fleet of 50 ships and headed towards Euboea. In June 1502 he captured the Island of Kos along with the Castle of San Pietro which belonged to the Knights of St. John. From there he sailed to Nafplion and bombarded its port until being called for assisting the defense of Mytilene which was sieged by a joint Venetian-French fleet. In July 1502 he landed his forces on Lesbos and fought against the French soldiers in Mytilene which the Ottomans had earlier taken from the Genoese in 1462. In August 1502 Kemal Reis made the Island of Lefkada his new base for operations in the Ionian and Adriatic Seas, where he raided the coastal settlements belonging to the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Ragusa, capturing several of them on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. However, the strategic importance of the Island of Santa Maura (as the Venetians called Lefkada) prompted the Repubblica Serenissima to organize a huge fleet under the command of Benedetto Pesaro, which consisted of 50 galleys and numerous other smaller ships. The Venetians were joined by 13 Papal galleys under the command of Giacomo Pesaro, the brother of Benedetto who was the Bishop of Paphos, as well as 3 galleys belonging to the Knights of St. John in Rhodes and 4 French galleys under the command of the Prégent de Bidoux. Overwhelmed by the size of the enemy fleet, Kemal Reis was forced to abandon Lefkada and sailed back first to Gallipoli and later to Istanbul, where, in October 1502, he ordered the construction of new ships at the Imperial Naval Arsenal of the Golden Horn.

    In March 1503 Kemal Reis set sail from Istanbul with his new ships and reached Gallipoli where he took over the command of the Turkish fleet that was based there. However, he was caught by a severe illness and had to return back to Istanbul for treatment, which lasted a long time and caused him to remain inactive between November 1503 and March 1505.

    In March 1505 Kemal Reis was appointed with the task of intercepting the Knights of St. John in Rhodes who caused serious damage on Ottoman shipping routes off the coasts of Anatolia, and he set sail from Gallipoli with a force of 3 galleys and 17 fustas, heading first towards the Island of Kos, which he had earlier captured from the Knights, with the aim of organizing an assault on their base in nearby Rhodes. In May 1505 Kemal Reis assaulted the coasts of Rhodes and landed a large number of Turkish troops on the island, where they bombarded the castle of the Knights from land and took control of several settlements. From there Kemal Reis sailed to the islands of Tilos and Nisyros where he bombarded the fortresses of the Knights from the sea. Still in May 1505 Kemal Reis captured the Island of Lemnos and assaulted the Island of Chios, before returning back to Modon in July 1505.

    Return to the West Mediterranean and Spain
    In September 1505 Kemal Reis assaulted Sicily and captured 3 ships (one from the Republic of Ragusa, the other two from Sicily) off the Sicilian coast.

    In January 1506 he made the Island of Djerba his new base and sailed to Spain, where he once again landed at the coasts of Andalucia and bombarded the ports of Almeria and Malaga. He also transported the final remnants of the surviving Muslims and Jews who had to suffer inhuman treatments since the Spanish Inquisition of 1492 and brought them to Istanbul.

    In May 1506 Kemal Reis, commanding a force of 8 galliots and fustas, returned to the Aegean Sea, and in June 1506 landed at the Island of Leros with a force of 500 janissaries. There he assaulted the Venetian castle under the command of Paolo Simeoni. Throughout June 1506 he raided the Dodecanese Islands before sailing back to the West Mediterranean with a fleet of 22 ships (including 3 large galleys and 11 fustas) where he landed on Sicily and assaulted the coastal settlements. There he was confronted by the forces of the Viceroy of Sicily who was an ally of Spain. In September 1506 Kemal Reis confronted a Spanish fleet for defending Djerba and captured a Spanish galley during combat. In October 1506 he landed at Trapani in Sicily and burned the Genoese ships at the port, whose crewmen were however released because they had no experience of naval warfare and were not deemed useful. He later bombarded the Venetian galley under the command of Benedetto Priuli. He responded to the cannon fire from the fortress of Trapani with the cannons on his ships. He later sailed to the Island of Cerigo in the Ionian Sea with a force of 3 galleys and 2 fustas, and exchanged fire with the Venetian fleet under the command of Girolamo Contarini. He later sailed back to Istanbul.

    Later operations in the East Mediterranean
    In January 1507 Kemal Reis was appointed by Bayezid II with the task of hunting the Knights of St. John and set sail from Gallipoli with a large fleet of 15 galleys and 25 fustas that were heavily armed with cannons. He engaged with the Knights in several occasions until August 1507, when he returned to Istanbul. In August 1507 he sailed to Alexandria with a cargo of 8,000 sets of oars and 50 cannons that were donated to the Mamluk sultan by Bayezid II for helping him in his fight against the Portuguese fleet which often ventured into the Red Sea and damaged Mameluke interests. Kemal Reis stayed in Egypt until February 1508, and was back in Istanbul in May 1508, where he personally coordinated the reparation and modification of his ships at the Imperial Naval Arsenal of the Golden Horn before setting sail once again towards the Aegean Sea for confronting the Venetians and the Knights of St. John. In August 1508 he arrived at Euboea with 2 galleys, 3 barques and numerous fustas. From there he sailed to Tenedos where he repulsed an attack of the Knights and sank a ship near the port of Sizia. In November 1508 he captured a Genoese galleass from Savona off the island of Tenedos. In January 1509, commanding a force of 13 ships, he assaulted the Castle of Coo near Rhodes which belonged to the Knights of St. John. In February 1509, accompanied by the famous Turkish privateer Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (known as Curtogoli in the West) and commanding a larger fleet of 20 ships (4 galleys, 1 galleass, 2 galliots, 3 barques and 10 fustas) he assaulted the City of Rhodes and landed a large number of janissaries at the port. In only a few days 4 large assaults are made on the Castle of Rhodes as well as the walls of the citadel that surrounds the city. Towards mid February, in command of 3 galleys and 3 fustas, he chased the ships belonging to Knights that were escaping Rhodes for the safety of nearby islands, and captured 3 galleons and 9 other types of ships.

    Final missions and death
    Still in 1509 Kemal Reis sailed to the Tyrrhenian Sea and landed at the coasts of Liguria. He continued operating in the West Mediterranean for some time, until returning back to Gallipoli. In September 1510 he set sail from Gallipoli with 2 galleys, 1 galliot and several fustas, and joined the Ottoman fleet of cargo ships in Istanbul which were heading to Alexandria and carried wood for building ships, sets of oars and cannons that were sent to the Mamluks for their fight against the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean. The cargo fleet that Kemal Reis was to escort amounted to a total of 40 ships, 8 of which were galleys.

    In early 1511, after passing the lands of the Duchy of Naxos and being sighted for the last time in December 1510, 27 ships of the Ottoman cargo fleet were wrecked by a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea, including the ship of Kemal Reis, who died with his men.

    Legacy
    Several warships of the Turkish Navy have been named after Kemal Reis.

    Piri Reis wrote this poem for his uncle, from whom he learned so much, in the opening section of his famous Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation):

    Good friend, I want you

    To remember us in your prayers,

    And remember Kemal Reis, our master,

    May his soul be content!

    He had perfect knowledge of the seas

    And knew the science of navigation.

    He knew innumerable seas;

    No one could stop him...

    We sailed the Mediterranean together

    And saw all its great cities.

    We went to Frankish lands

    And defeated the infidel.

    One day an order from

    Sultan Bayezid arrived.

    "Tell Kemal Reis to come to me,"

    It said, "and advise me on affairs of the sea."

    So in 1495, the year of this command,

    We returned to our country.

    By the sultan's command we set out

    And won many victories...

    Kemal Reis sailed hoping to come back,

    But was lost at sea.

    Everyone once spoke of him;

    Now even his name is forgotten...

    The angel of death caught him

    While he was serving Sultan Bayezid.

    May God give peace to those

    Who remember Kemal Reis with a prayer.

    Kemal died and went to the next world

    And we found ourselves alone in this.


    Source
    Frederic C. Lane: Venice, A Maritime Republic (Baltimore, 1973)
    Paul Lunde: Piri Reis and the Columbus Map (1992)
    Salvatore Bono: Corsari nel Mediterraneo (Corsairs in the Mediterranean), Oscar Storia Mondadori. (Perugia, 1993)
    wikipedia.org
     
    Last edited: Mar 8, 2014
  19. CapitainDams

    CapitainDams Pirate Spirit Crew's Captain

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    Nice!

    Added.
     
  20. Old Salt

    Old Salt Asylum escapee News Gatherer

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    I didn't see this thread before. That's quite a list you got there! <img src="style_emoticons/<#EMO_DIR#>/thumbs1.gif" style="vertical-align:middle" emoid=":2up" border="0" alt="thumbs1.gif" />
     

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